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Employment Dynamics – Gross Job Flows (Creation and Destruction)

A series of federal databases provide measures of job creation and destruction and, in several instances, establishment openings, expansions, contractions, and closings.

Quarterly Workforce Indicators, Local Employment Dynamics Partnership, Center for Economic Studies, Census Bureau

  • Measures: Job creation, separation, and turnover numbers by industry sector and worker characteristics (age, sex, race, ethnicity, educational attainment)
    • Plans to offer measures by firm age and size
    • Geography: States, metros, WIA regions, and counties
    • Reference period: Quarter
    • Coverage: Establishments that participate in a state unemployment insurance (UI) system, will add federal employment
    • Method: Matches establishment and employee records in each state (UI) system
    • Access: Free
    • Public Use Data

Business Employment Dynamics, Bureau of Labor Statistics

  • Measures:
    • Gross job gains (job gains at opening establishments + job gains at expanding establishments) and gross job losses (job losses at closing establishments + job losses at contracting establishments)
    • Number of opening, expanding, contracting, and closing establishments
    • By industry sector, firm size class
    • Geography: States (smaller geographies possible in the future)
    • Reference period: Quarter (released eight months after reference quarter)
    • Method: Links establishment records from state UI systems (6.8 million employers)
    • Access: Free

Business Dynamic Statistics, Census Bureau

  • Measures: Establishment openings and closings, firm startups, job creation and destruction by firm size, age, and industrial sector
  • Geography: States (metro and nonmetro areas planned)
  • Reference period: Calendar year (released 15 months after reference calendar year)
  • Method: Relies on the Longitudinal Business Database, developed through the Census Bureau’s Business Register, a database of U.S. business establishments and companies (covering 6.8 million establishments and 5.2 million firms)
  • Access: Free

Longitudinal Business Databases – Establishment Records Linked Over Time


One federal agency and one private firm provide access to an extensive longitudinal database, with records linked by establishment


Longitudinal Business Database, Center for Economic Studies, Census Bureau

  • Microdata Availability:  By individual establishment regarding age, ownership, industry classification, location, payroll, employment, receipts, firm affiliation. LBD establishment data can be linked to corresponding records in other Census economic surveys. CES plans to add export and patent data to the LBD in the near future.
  • Coverage: Private and some public sector establishments
  • Frequency: Updated regularly
  • Data Source: The Census Bureau’s Business Register, a database of U.S. business establishments and companies (covering 6.8 million establishments and 5.2 million firms).
  • Microdata Access:  CES Research Data Center program (there is a public use Synthetic LBD, but it contains no geographic information)


National Establishment Time-Series (NETS) Database, Walls and Associates

Job Demand and Supply

Real-Time Labor Market Information – information on the demand and requirements for and characteristics of occupations, from electronic job boards; information on characteristics of job applicants, from resumes submitted to public and private employment services


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